CN 11-5366/S     ISSN 1673-1530
引用本文: 潘逸炜,张春彦.石崇金谷园及其园林历史想象:人造自然的观念再造[J].风景园林,2024,31(2):120-128.
PAN Y W, ZHANG C Y. Shi Chong’s Jingu Garden and Its Historical Imagination: Conceptual Reconstruction of Man-Made Nature[J]. Landscape Architecture, 2024, 31(2): 120-128.
Citation: PAN Y W, ZHANG C Y. Shi Chong’s Jingu Garden and Its Historical Imagination: Conceptual Reconstruction of Man-Made Nature[J]. Landscape Architecture, 2024, 31(2): 120-128.


Shi Chong’s Jingu Garden and Its Historical Imagination: Conceptual Reconstruction of Man-Made Nature

  • 摘要:
    目的 作为魏晋时期私家园林的代表,石崇金谷园在物质空间湮灭后仍持续出现在诗文和绘画中,以观念再造的形式呈现。金谷园形象的时代流变反映了自然观念的变迁,进而引发对园林史料认识和历史叙述构建的反思。
    方法 通过梳理和区分西晋时期一手文献和后代文献,考察其中对金谷园特征的描述,阐述对金谷园认识和评价所具有的集体特征,结合自唐至清的金谷园绘画,进一步佐证对园林认知观念的变迁。
    结果 发现自西晋到明清时期,文人对金谷园的描述逐渐从全景式的描写转向对楼阁建筑的关注,进而聚焦到陈设物,山石植物退为配景。这一过程中,金谷园从自然进入观念,逐渐成为文学意象和文化共识。
    结论 提出金谷园的形象通过文人诗、文、画的不断重现和更新,由此指向对时间理解的再思考。文学和绘画作品是作者在其当下对过去的感知和重构,其中金谷园在诗文绘画中的不断重现保证了园林意象的绵延,对其时代性的解释更新赓续了园林的生命力。


    Objective Jingu Garden, or the Golden Valley Garden, is a representative of Chinese private gardens in Wei and Jin dynasties. Current works on Chinese garden history mostly discuss the objects in Jingu Garden by using relevant historical documents. The garden disappeared in AD 300 due to the execution of its owner Shi Chong (249−300). But for over 1,500 years thereafter, the image of Jingu Garden continued to appear in poetry and paintings in the form of conceptual reconstruction. The transformation of the image of Jingu Garden reflects temporal changes in the view of nature. It also helps evoke the rethinking on historical documents and narratives of Chinese gardens. The case Jingu Garden guides us to think about how those disappeared gardens are reconstructed through perception and memory, and how nature as a concept interacts with the present beyond physical time. This research aims to further explore the possible path of understanding Chinese garden history beyond linear narrative.
    Methods This research is essentially a case study focusing on the in-depth exploration and analysis of the particular case Jingu Garden. By sorting out and distinguishing first-hand literature of Western Jin Dynasty and second-hand literature in later dynasties, the research examines the descriptions of Jingu Garden in various periods and finds out the common features of the understanding and evaluation of the garden. The research also analyzes paintings of Jingu Garden spanning the period from Tang Dynasty to Qing Dynasty, in order to provide a further proof for changes in the understanding of the garden.
    Results It is found that although there exists only a small quantity of first-hand literature of Western Jin Dynasty, such literature provides an objective description of the natural environment of Jingu Garden including terrain, plants, pavilions, tower and outside scenery. After the garden’s destruction, several second-hand literature quoted in a number of famous historical works such as Shiyi Ji, Shishuo Xinyu and Jinshu appeared as a supplement to the first-hand literature, further enriching the scenery descriptions, characters and stories of the garden. Actually, they provide resources for later literati to imagine the garden. From Northern and Southern Dynasties to early Tang Dynasty, the spatial imagination of Jingu Garden in poetry and literature mainly focuses on waters, trees, flowers and fruits, which continues the description of Jingu Garden’s natural environment in Western Jin literature. From the flourishing Tang Dynasty to Song Dynasty, the tone of nostalgia for the past and present became increasingly strong, with tower and spring flowers becoming the core elements in the imagination of Jingu Garden, and the soundscape of bamboo-pipe music typically seen in the remembrances about the garden. During Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, the imagination of Jingu Garden gradually shifted from landscape scenery to special furnishings such as red coral and brocade screen, with mountains, stones and plants serving as supporting roles. At this time, Jingu Garden formed a relatively fixed literary allusion. During this process, the imagery of gardens continues to condense, with that of Jingu Garden shifting from nature to concept, becoming a cultural imagery and common consensus. This process corresponds to the interest of miniaturization in Chinese garden aesthetics. Meanwhile, the focus of paintings of Jingu Garden also shifts from grand scenes to some certain characters and events, with the overall natural environment of the garden gradually fading out of the painters’ imagination with the passing of time, the physical environment being condensed into a particular literary allusion and imagery group, and the depiction of nature gradually shifting from panoramic depiction to the background of narrative, which is generally consistent with the changes in the imagination and concept of Jingu Garden reflected in literary works.
    Conclusion The image of Jingu Garden is constantly reproduced and updated through literati’s poetry, literature, and paintings. For traditional literati, when recollecting the scenes of Jingu Garden, they attempt to collect information from fragments of the previous generations as ideal resources. They combine their own life experiences and emotions to construct those scenes of the garden that have passed away. Compared with the historians’ rigorous work on documents, literati prefer not to distinguish the authenticity or objectivity of the information they collect. This research reminds contemporary researchers in the field of Chinese garden history to realize that the relationship between historical facts and events objectively exists, which, however, can hardly be fully observed. It’s an inevitably futile attempt to find out the authentic and comprehensive historical landscape from imaginative reconstruction of disappeared garden. Instead of striving to build objective historical narratives, it is better to change the paradigm of the understanding of “time”. As “cognitive resources”, literary works and paintings show the authors’ perception and reconstruction of the past based on their current experience. Similarly, the work of garden history research is to observe the past from the present perspective, experience “the past of the past” through past materials, and understand and continue the cognition of garden based on such observation and experience. The continuous reappearance of Jingu Garden guarantees the continuation of this garden, and the updating interpretation continues its vitality.