CN 11-5366/S     ISSN 1673-1530
引用本文: 周宏俊,郭真真,吴昀眙,寇怀云.真实与虚像:探析江南历史园林的当代复建[J].风景园林,2024,31(8):1-10.
ZHOU H J, GUO Z Z, WU Y Y, KOU H Y. Reality and Virtuality: Exploration of Contemporary Reconstruction of Jiangnan Historic Gardens[J]. Landscape Architecture, 2024, 31(8): 1-10.
Citation: ZHOU H J, GUO Z Z, WU Y Y, KOU H Y. Reality and Virtuality: Exploration of Contemporary Reconstruction of Jiangnan Historic Gardens[J]. Landscape Architecture, 2024, 31(8): 1-10.


Reality and Virtuality: Exploration of Contemporary Reconstruction of Jiangnan Historic Gardens

  • 摘要:
    目的 20世纪50年代以来,江南各地多有对残损或消失的历史园林的复建,这些园林构成了传统园林在当代延续的一部分。另外,园林的文本化、文人化特征促生了园林历史中兴废演替的一种传统方式,即由文人主导的基于文本的再造。有必要结合这一传统,厘清江南历史园林当代复建的特点与意义。
    方法 聚焦当代复建的历史园林,通过对江南地区的案例开展文献与实地调研,剖析并区分复建的动机与策略,进一步分析典型案例的复建方法。
    结果 揭示了园林传统、遗产理念、当代文化等多维度的影响,进而探讨了园林风格、园林类型、真实性等方面存在的问题与挑战。
    结论 复建园林作为历史真实的虚像,是传统园林文化的重要表征,在复建信息真实以及准确展示的基础上,可以发挥多元的价值。


    Objective The contemporary reconstruction of historic gardens in the Jiangnan region is a significant endeavor aimed at preserving the legacy of traditional gardens and integrating them into modern society. Since the 1950s, the reconstruction of damaged or vanished gardens has not only continued the tradition of these gardens in contemporary times, but also reflected a literati-led tradition of text-based re-creation. Through literature review and field investigation, this research collects several cases of garden reconstruction in the Jiangnan region, based on which it analyzes the motives and strategies for garden reconstruction, explores the influence of multidimensional factors such as garden traditions, heritage concepts, and contemporary cultures on garden reconstruction, and discusses relevant problems and challenges in such aspects as garden style, garden type, and authenticity.
    Method The research first reviews the literati characteristics and textual traditions of traditional Chinese gardens. The reconstruction of gardens is often based on relevant texts and images created by literati, and typically integrates the concepts of the reconstructors and the garden styles of the time, thus gradually forming an important tradition. Next, the research provides an overview of the contemporary reconstruction of Jiangnan historic gardens. Through literature review and field investigation, it is found that over 30 gardens in the Jiangnan region have been reconstructed in contemporary times. The main period of reconstruction started in the 1980s, reflecting the impact of social development on garden construction. The research further analyzes different types of reconstructed gardens, including the early tourism-oriented reconstruction, the continuation of the tradition of literati-led garden construction, the impact of authenticity, and the drive of cultural demands. The research particularly points out that Chen Congzhou, with his traditional literati approach to garden reconstruction, continues the tradition of literati garden construction.
    Results The research uncovers a variety of motivations behind garden reconstruction, including the revival of historical aesthetics, enhancement of cultural tourism, and fulfillment of public recreational needs. Strategically, reconstructed gardens often pursue stylistic and typological integrity, with a focus on material authenticity and historical accuracy. However, an overemphasis on style has sometimes resulted in standardized and homogenized garden designs. The construction approach has shifted from traditional long-term cultivation to modern systematic design and construction. Additionally, issues with the interpretation of reconstructed gardens are common, such as the lack of detailed explanations or the conflation of reconstruction with history, leading to potential misunderstandings among the public. When discussing the authenticity of reconstructed gardens, the research points out that while international documents like the Venice Charter emphasize material authenticity, the Beijing Document and the Principles for the Conservation of Heritage Sites in China affirm the significance and methods of reconstruction to some extent. This indicates that perceptions of reconstructed gardens are evolving amidst the integration of international concepts with Chinese traditional culture and reality. The introduction of the concept of “spiritual authenticity” highlights that the authenticity of garden heritage is primarily reflected in the spiritual authenticity of the overall environment, rather than mere material authenticity. The research also addresses the impact of cultural demands on garden reconstruction. Collective social cognition regards gardens as more than legacies of literati writings; they are emblematic of profound cultural significance. Consequently, garden reconstruction, to cater to cultural demands, places substantial value on gardens as a cultural product, characterized by distinctive style and completeness. This demand has spurred various reconstruction methods, such as the completion of scenic spots, relocation reconstruction, naming borrowing, and hybrid integration. Despite the challenges, reconstructed gardens play a constructive role in inheriting gardening arts and skills and in reinforcing a sense of local identity. As a virtual image of historical reality, they can realize multiple values based on the authenticity of reconstruction information and precise interpretation. The research advocates for in-depth research and cautious practice in the reconstruction process, emphasizing the importance of detailed research and interpretation of style, form, craftsmanship, and other elements to achieve effective reconstruction.
    Conclusion Finally, the research summarizes the status of reconstructed gardens between heritage and non-heritage, as well as the different attitudes of the Venice Charter and the Principles for the Conservation of Heritage Sites in China toward reconstruction. The research emphasizes that the value of reconstructed gardens is based on the authenticity of information, and the importance of display and interpretation cannot be overlooked. Reconstructed gardens, as virtual images of historical reality, can exert their diverse values based on the authenticity and accurate interpretation of reconstruction information. In summary, the reconstruction of Jiangnan historic gardens is a complex and multidimensional process involving aspects such as historical heritage protection, cultural inheritance, artistic innovation, and social demands. Through in-depth research and prudent practice, reconstructed gardens can serve as an important bridge connecting the past with the present, and tradition with modernity, thus providing contemporary society with rich cultural value and artistic enjoyment.