CN 11-5366/S     ISSN 1673-1530
引用本文: 顾凯.当代江南私家园林中传统山水营造的传承与发展[J].风景园林,2024,31(8):47-54.
GU K. Inheritance and Development of Traditional Mountain and River Construction in Contemporary Jiangnan Private Gardens[J]. Landscape Architecture, 2024, 31(8): 47-54.
Citation: GU K. Inheritance and Development of Traditional Mountain and River Construction in Contemporary Jiangnan Private Gardens[J]. Landscape Architecture, 2024, 31(8): 47-54.


Inheritance and Development of Traditional Mountain and River Construction in Contemporary Jiangnan Private Gardens

  • 摘要:
    目的 当代江南地区的私家园林正在持续繁荣发展之中,因它对营造传统的继承与发展最为紧密地结合着生活现实而具有认知价值,需要探究其兴造状况、面貌特点、方法取向等方面的问题,改变相关学术研究还较为缺乏的局面。
    方法 结合文献、考察、访谈等多方面资料,从理论、现状、营造3个层面对当代江南私家园林中传统山水营造的传承与发展进行初步探讨。
    结果 基本理论层面,私家园林的概念范围应包含更大量的民间自发造园,形态以相对小型的庭园为多,核心特征是以叠山理石为显著标志的山水营造;兴造现状层面,当代江南私家园林自改革开放以后复苏,近年趋向全面兴盛,山水营造也是其中显著特征;具体营造层面,既有对叠山理石传统的丰富传承,也有新思路的引入而使传统得到创新发展。
    结论 对当代江南私家园林中传统山水营造的传承与发展的认识,不仅可加深对现实的理解,也可为更大范围的当代风景园林实践提供极具活力的源泉。


    Objective Contemporary private gardens in Jiangnan region are in continuing prosperity. They have cognitive value as their inheritance and development of traditional construction techniques are effectively integrated with the reality of life. It is necessary to explore their construction status, appearance characteristics, method orientation, etc., and to change the situation that there is still a lack of systematic academic research.
    Methods Combining multiple sources of materials such as literature, field visits, and interviews, this research tentatively discusses the inheritance and development of traditional “shanshui” (mountain and river) construction in contemporary Jiangnan private gardens from three levels: Theory, current status, and construction.
    Results Firstly, in terms of theory, as to “private gardens”, the tradition of folk garden making since Ming and Qing dynasties has been popularized among the general public, far from being exclusive to literati. We should broaden our perspective to incorporate an incalculable number of folk gardens; meanwhile, a large number of relatively small “courtyard gardens” exist, which have inherent deep vitality thanks to their close relationship with people’s daily life, and this is also the most common situation of contemporary folk garden making. The recognition of folk garden making traditions should also pay attention to the inherent aesthetic and formal characteristics of “shanshui” construction. The first thing deserving attention is “shanshui” construction featuring stone arrangement and rockery making. Under the guidance of literati garden creation, the connotation of “shanshui widely spreads among the general public, laying a solid foundation for traditional garden making. Rockery making or even simple stone arrangement in gardens is the most obvious sign of the continuation of the folk garden making tradition. Secondly, in terms of the current development status, traditional private garden construction has gradually increased since the period of reform and opening up, and has become a thriving trend to this day. Particularly, “shanshui construction characterized by stone arrangement and rockery making is still the core concern. The folk gardening in Jiangnan has continued uninterruptedly, even during difficult periods such as the Cultural Revolution period. Since the reform and opening up, private garden construction in Jiangnan region has gone from almost extinction to gradual recovery and prosperity, and this upward trend is still continuing. Inheriting historical tradition, the private garden construction in Jiangnan region is increasingly becoming an “art for all”. In terms of specific construction, there are generally fewer large gardens and more small courtyard gardens; in terms of form and style, with “mountains and rivers” as the characteristic, traditional garden making can be clearly distinguished: large and medium-sized traditional gardens can have typical stacked mountains and water arrangements; while in small gardens, it is reflected in relatively simple rockery, and even simple peaks and stones and earth slopes with stones can symbolically express the meaning of “mountain”, rather than garden construction with clear traditional style. Although more and more gardens without clear traditional style have appeared in recent years, a large part of them still have stone arrangements, typically simple arrangemnets though. This phenomenon can be understood as a deep continuation of traditional culture and a reflection of the adaptability to reality. Thirdly, in terms of specific construction characteristics, “shanshui construction, as the core feature of traditional gardens, has also produced some outstanding works in the construction of contemporary Jiangnan private gardens. These works not only continue the core landscape connotation of tradition, but also adapt to the actual contemporary living conditions. Some works focus on the inherent adaptability of traditional methods themselves, while others emphasize external new ideas introduced from other fields. From several “shanshui” construction cases completed in recent years, we can see that some cases more emphasize inheritance and inherit the traditional rockery making techniques in a relatively intact manner under diverse conditions in the contemporary era, reflecting continuous internal vitality; others more emphasize development, indicating that the rockery making techniques that embody the spiritual connotation of landscape culture have undergone changes under new conditions and shown vitality in the innovation of methods and forms.
    Conclusion Chinese garden culture had penetrated into the widespread private garden construction during Ming and Qing dynasties, which is significantly reflected by “shanshui” construction in small courtyard gardens. This tradition has continued to this day despite its ups and downs, with traditional garden construction techniques being increasingly applied in contemporary Jiangnan private courtyard gardens. The enthusiasm of folk garden construction, once suppressed among the people in Jiangnan region, has regained its remarkable vitality under new social conditions. As the significant characteristic of folk garden construction, landscape construction is also prominently presented, with both relatively clear inheritance and new development, reflecting the inherent vitality and broad prospects of excellent traditions. The understanding of the inheritance and development of traditional “shanshui” construction in contemporary Jiangnan private gardens can not only provide a deep understanding of reality, but also provide a highly dynamic source for a wider range of contemporary landscape architecture practices.