CN 11-5366/S     ISSN 1673-1530
引用本文: 魏兰君,李凡凡,秦毅,廖怀建.蝴蝶生态景观构建:城市生物多样性保护实践[J].风景园林,2024,31(3):115-122.
WEI L J, LI F F, QIN Y, LIAO H J. Construction of Butterfly Ecological Landscape: Practice for Urban Biodiversity Conservation[J]. Landscape Architecture, 2024, 31(3): 115-122.
Citation: WEI L J, LI F F, QIN Y, LIAO H J. Construction of Butterfly Ecological Landscape: Practice for Urban Biodiversity Conservation[J]. Landscape Architecture, 2024, 31(3): 115-122.


Construction of Butterfly Ecological Landscape: Practice for Urban Biodiversity Conservation

  • 摘要:
    目的 全球的蝴蝶多样性正在因为城市化而大幅下降,蝴蝶群落的组成受到景观特征的极大影响,利用一系列景观布局、要素搭配、维护管理等手段能在城市等受人类干扰的环境中重建蝴蝶栖息地。
    方法 通过文献梳理回顾了蝴蝶栖息地景观研究的理论基础,通过案例分析总结了英美两国蝴蝶和栖息地保护的实践经验,并对比分析了中国蝴蝶保护现状及生态景观营建条件与西方国家的差异。
    结果 探索出“选蝶种—选场地—搭要素—控管护—重科普”的营建路径,并以中国苏南地区为例,通过对蝴蝶生态分布和生活习性的研究,对寄主植物、蜜源植物、水体、石块等景观要素进行组合和空间结构设计,构建出适于开阔向阳空间的凤蝶生态景观和适于阴凉郁闭空间的眼蝶生态景观应用模型。
    结论 提供了一种新颖的景观设计思路,强调景观的生态内涵和互动性,对于城市生物多样性保护和公众参与意识提升具有积极意义,推动中国生物友好型城市建设与国际接轨。


    Objective Butterflies serve as a vital environmental indicator, which are highly sensitive to ecological shifts induced by human activities. As urbanization intensifies, the diversity of butterflies faces escalating threats. The abundance and composition of butterfly communities are profoundly influenced by landscape characteristics. Consequently, butterflies are frequently adopted as model organisms to elucidate strategies for landscape planning and habitat management in eco-friendly urban areas, mitigating adverse impacts on urban biodiversity caused by human activities. Numerous international researches have investigated the feasibility of enhancing butterfly diversity through urban landscape construction, while some developed nations have transformed theoretical insights into practical implementation. China has a relatively weak research foundation in relevant fields, necessitating urgent exploration of methods tailored to its national conditions for constructing urban butterfly habitats.
    Methods This research establishes a comprehensive theoretical foundation for the research on butterfly habitat landscape based on literature review. By analyzing successful experience in butterfly and habitat conservation from the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US), the research conducts a comparative assessment of butterfly conversation status between China and other nations, culminating in a proposed strategy for constructing butterfly ecological landscape. Taking the southern Jiangsu region as an example, the research develops ecological landscape application models for two selected butterfly groups.
    Results The literature review underscores three pivotal levels of butterfly habitat conservation: ensuring habitat area and connectivity, constructing high-quality habitats with landscape heterogeneity, and integrating varied landscape scales to maximize conservation efficacy for diverse butterfly species. Consequently, safeguarding urban butterfly habitats necessitates securing habitat areas both surrounding and within cities through macro-level planning while establishing high-quality habitat landscape at small and medium scales. International research on landscape element characteristics, layout design and maintenance provides a theoretical underpinning for the construction of butterfly ecological landscape. Through case studies of the UK and the US, the research scrutinizes the construction methods and conservation measures of the two nations for butterfly habitat. The UK, emphasizing landscape reforestation, employs habitat construction methods such as scrapes, seeding, plug-planting, and butterfly bank. The US, particularly in the conservation of the Monarch butterflies, implements universal butterfly conservation education. Comparative analysis reveals substantial differences in landscape types, user groups, and functional requirements among Chinese cities and cities in developed countries. Based on China’s national conditions, the research explores the path of “species selection – site selection – elements matching – landscape management – science popularization” for constructing butterfly ecological landscape. Taking the southern Jiangsu region as an example, the research develops the application models of ecological landscape for Papilioninae and Satyrinae butterflies. Landscape elements catering to Papilioninae spp. such as Papilio bianor with Rutaceae plants as host and Sericinus montelus with Aristolochiaceae plants as host, comprise open sunny spaces, honey source plants, host plants, shoals, and gravel roads, suitable for deployment in open activity areas of public green spaces. Landscape elements for Satyrinae spp. such as Lethe syrcis with Poaceae bamboos as host and Ypthima baldus with grasses as host, encompass bamboo forests, gravel roads, stones, deciduous layers, and honey plants, suitable for residential green spaces, country parks, and urban forests.
    Conclusion China’s expansive territory and ecological diversity yield varying natural conditions and butterfly species nationwide, necessitating diverse butterfly ecological landscapes. Nevertheless, there are commonalities in function, structure, and elements in butterfly ecological landscapes. In view of this, establishing a landscape model may help mitigate technical and knowledge barriers and facilitate broader application. The research proposes that future efforts should focus on refining the theoretical foundation, practical implementation, public management policies, and public cooperation to formulate a comprehensive urban butterfly and habitat conservation strategy. Moreover, the research also identifies current challenges and future research directions, such as the limited role of small and medium-sized ecological landscapes in biodiversity conservation, the difficulty in establishing stable populations of target butterfly species in artificial habitats, and the interaction between human and wildlife in urban landscape.