CN 11-5366/S     ISSN 1673-1530
引用本文: 陈崇贤,刘康,刘京一.风景园林理论知识体系发展溯源[J].风景园林,2024,31(3):27-35.
CHEN C X, LIU K, LIU J Y. Origin and Evolution of the Theoretical Knowledge System of Landscape Architecture[J]. Landscape Architecture, 2024, 31(3): 27-35.
Citation: CHEN C X, LIU K, LIU J Y. Origin and Evolution of the Theoretical Knowledge System of Landscape Architecture[J]. Landscape Architecture, 2024, 31(3): 27-35.


Origin and Evolution of the Theoretical Knowledge System of Landscape Architecture

  • 摘要:
    目的 探究风景园林理论知识形成的复杂脉络,能够为学科理论知识体系的构建提供新的视野。
    方法 借鉴知识考古学方法,从人文与艺术学科、自然科学、社会科学三大学科领域梳理风景园林理论知识体系的发展历程,归纳演变特点及驱动因素。
    结果 1)风景园林理论知识体系发展经历了从早期以人文与艺术学科知识驱动为主,逐渐走向与自然科学、社会科学的多元交叉过程。2)不同学科视野下的风景园林理论知识发展各有特点,本质上是美学观、自然观、公平观发生了改变:人文与艺术学科视野下的学科理论知识生产由地域性审美观走向批判地域性审美观;自然科学视野下的学科理论知识生产由朴素自然观走向多元生态观;社会科学视野下的学科理论知识生产由精英式公平观走向公众公平观。3)风景园林理论知识体系发展的驱动因素是由满足使用者的审美需求转向满足人在空间中生理、心理及社会全方位的功能需求。
    结论 风景园林理论知识体系未来发展还需要树立自主理论知识体系的意识、梳理其逻辑基点并建立弹性和动态调整的更新机制。


    Objective As the working scope of landscape architecture expands and urban problems become more complicated, the comprehensive discipline of landscape architecture is compelled to integrate diverse knowledge and theories from other disciplines, such as aesthetics, geography, and ecology. However, this integration also results in the generalization of the discipline’s knowledge, posing a challenge to its independence. Furthermore, the diversity and complexity of knowledge sources make it more difficult to construct a theoretical system. Indeed, it is crucial to elucidate the process by which the knowledge system is shaped and constructed in the development of the discipline to establish a robust theoretical framework. In view of this, this research mainly aims to address the following questions. 1) How has the current production of knowledge in landscape architecture evolved and developed since its inception? 2) How does the formation of knowledge in landscape architecture relate to other disciplines, and what are its characteristics? 3) What factors have influenced the development of the knowledge system of the landscape architecture discipline, and what challenges does the discipline face?
    Methods Utilizing an archaeological approach, this research reviews the development process of the theoretical knowledge system of landscape architecture across three dimensions: humanities and arts disciplines, natural sciences, and social sciences. Meanwhile, it succinctly outlines the evolution characteristics of the theoretical knowledge system and the underlying factors. The application of the archaeological approach serves dual purposes. Firstly, it offers ideas and clear methods for tracing the origins of knowledge elements, such as concepts, practical subjects, media, and objects within the knowledge system of landscape architecture. Secondly, it aids in exploring deep-seated factors concealed beneath the manifestations of knowledge, thereby revealing the mechanisms of formation and internal evolution of knowledge in landscape architecture.
    Results The knowledge development within landscape architecture is reviewed through three fundamental knowledge systems. 1) Regarding the overall evolution of knowledge, the development of the knowledge system of landscape architecture proves to be flexible and dynamic. Its evolution gradually traverses the humanities and arts disciplines, intersecting diversely with natural and social sciences. The boundaries of knowledge continually expand, adjust, and update in alignment with the evolving times and societal needs. 2) The development of knowledge in landscape architecture, viewed from distinct perspectives, exhibits unique characteristics. Essentially, it reflects changes in aesthetic, natural, and equitable considerations. Under humanities and arts disciplines, knowledge production has progressed from “regional aesthetics” to “critical regional aesthetics”. In the realm of natural sciences, it has shifted from a “simple view of nature” to a “pluralistic ecological view”. In the domain of social sciences, the progression is evident from an “elitist equity view” to a “public equity view”. 3) The evolution of knowledge within the discipline has been steered by varying factors across different periods. In the early stage of garden development, aesthetics plays a predominant role, driving the development of material and formal theories. However, in modern times, aesthetics no longer satisfies the complex functional needs of cities. Consequently, visually-driven factors have shifted toward the physiological, psychological, and social needs of people in spaces. This shift prompts the discipline to incorporate knowledge from ecology, psychology, and sociology, giving birth to theories such as urban open space, healthy city, and community design. Additionally, computer technology, facilitating the scientific and quantitative exploration of the relationship between human and environmental elements, has swiftly found its place in the discipline, contributing to the understanding of human perception and experience in space.
    Conclusion 1) Establishing awareness for the development of an independent knowledge system in landscape architecture is crucial for addressing various environmental, social, cultural, and aesthetic challenges. Although scholars in this field have consistently recognized the mission to pursue an independent knowledge system since the inception of the landscape architecture discipline, it has often been perceived stereotypically as lacking such a system. However, with the current development and prosperity of landscape architecture, scientific research in the discipline has significantly narrowed the gap with other disciplines. The research in landscape architecture has become increasingly intertwined with global and national challenges in the development and practice of human settlement environment. Consequently, the construction of an independent knowledge system has reached a critical stage of both necessity and possibility. 2) Identifying the logical fundamentals of the independent knowledge system in landscape architecture is essential. Relevant knowledge within the landscape architecture discipline is an accumulation of understanding, opinions, and experience derived from past practice in addressing the contradictions between human society and the environment. The theorization and systematization of landscape architecture knowledge must emanate from various forms of practice. Only a knowledge system grounded in the historical construction of landscape architecture practice can overcome the longstanding perception of being in an “apprentice” or “imitation” stage. 3) Establishing a flexible and dynamic mechanism for adjusting and updating the knowledge system is crucial. On one hand, landscape architecture should integrate interventions from multiple disciplines to incorporate corresponding disciplinary knowledge, and should refine new concepts, categories, and expressions that are easily understood and accepted by both society and the industry to guide academic research and discussion; on the other hand, educators, as the main contributors to the development of disciplinary knowledge, should emphasize the establishment and improvement of the theoretical knowledge system of landscape architecture.